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TM 9-8000
pertain to automotive technology or describe military
1-10.  Terminology. The terminology part of the
vehicle characteristics.
manual will describe those terms used in the text that
development program for more and better vehicles.
1-11.  Pre-World War II.  In 1912, four commercial
Foreign commitments have forced the United States to
trucks were purchased by the US Army for experimental
rapidly update its military equipment to meet particular
purposes. Thus, motor vehicles were introduced as a
countries' soil and climatic conditions, including adapting
means of transporting military personnel, supplies, and
to temperatures from - 70F (-57C) to +125F (+52C),
equipment.  By 1916, when a punitive expedition was
rough and hilly terrain, sand, mud, snow, and swamps. It
sent against the Mexican bandits, interest had been
is difficult to visualize the many and varied requirements
stimulated to the point that a nonstandard fleet of trucks
that must be incorporated in each tactical and combat
was assembled at the Mexican border and used in the
vehicle, whether it be wheeled or tracked.
At that time, it was discovered that
development of our military vehicles is parallel with the
commercial  transportation  did  not  meet  military
history of our country.  Sudden involvement usually
requirements on operations over rough terrain or in the
results in crash programs to revise and modify existing
vital requirements of maintenance and repair.  This
materiel; however, during peacetime and when the time
discovery brought about the standardized designs of
element is not critical, the trend is toward a partial or
operating equipment and a variety of modifications to
completely new concept of a vehicle (or system) for a
meet military requirements. As a result, a majority of the
designated purpose. Whatever the case may be, certain
thousands of vehicles used in World War I were
elements must be taken into consideration.  One is
standardized and possessed a moderate degree of inter-
product improvement, which usually comes about by a
changeability. Trench warfare caused the development
gradual change, with the modification of a single
of an automotive vehicle used only for combat purposes;
component, whether it be a bolt or a gear in a
thus the tank was developed.  American design and
transmission. Closely associated with this is reliability,
experimentation were carried on in the period between
the ability to meet certain requirements as specified with
the two World Wars to develop a fleet of military wheeled
a minimum of maintenance. Many tactical requirements
vehicles that were entirely standardized and had a high
of military vehicles are closely related, and to meet these
degree of interchangeability.
Under the program,
ends, families of vehicles have dominated the scene.
industry began to produce vehicles with both front-and
Generally speaking, this means a specific chassis and
rear-wheel drives, a feature required of a military vehicle
power train, with or without modification, is used with
for successful operation over any terrain but found only
added equipment to produce a cargo truck, wrecker, or
in special commercial equipment. After German tanks
tank truck. In addition to satisfying these requirements, a
and combat vehicles proved so successful against the
high degree of interchangeability of repair parts is
Polish, French, and British armies in 1939 and 1940,
achieved. This is one form of standardization of designs.
American tank development was increased. The United
Additional  aspects  that  must  be  considered  for
States equaled, and in some instances surpassed, the
development  of  today's  vehicles  include  newer
Axis powers in the race to develop superior combat
techniques in maintenance, the introduction of advanced
vehicles and was able to use overwhelming quantities of
metals for lightweight construction, air transportability,
automotive materiel against them to help bring about
and capability to ford a body of water.
their defeat.
1.12.  Post-World War II.  Since World War II, the
United States has continually pressed its research and
there are also bodies and equipment that are unique to
1-13. General. Military vehicles incorporate all forms of
military operations.  They include all types of trucks,
wheeled and tracked vehicles including the full range of
tractors, truck
body types found in commercial vehicles.  However,


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