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TM 9-8000
Figure 33-2. Fifth-Wheel Steering
housing, in which case the end of the housing has a
provided to keep the ball and socket joint properly
screwcap. The end of the drag link connected to the
lubricated. A dust seal covers the tie rod end to prevent
steering knuckle arm is usually somewhat similar though
dust from entering the Joint and to prevent the loss of
it may be like a tie rod end.  Lubrication fittings are
lubricant. In the solid axle configuration, the tie rod end
provided for each joint. Dust shields are fitted over the
is screwed onto the tie rod and is secured with clamps.
ball and socket Joints to hold the lubricant and to prevent
dust from entering the joint.
33-3.  Independent Suspension Steering Linkage.
The steering linkage on vehicles with independent
b. Steering Arms. The steering arms on the solid
suspension must be flexible due to the relative motion of
axle suspension, like all others are bent toward each
each wheel. To accomplish this, the tie rod must be of a
other to achieve toe out or turns. The left side arm is
multipiece design.  Of the many designs in use, the
shaped like a bellcrank and accepts the drag link and tie
following are the most common.
a.  Center Steering Linkage (Fig.  33-4).  One
c. Tie Rod. The tie rod connects the steering arms
configuration that was used on earlier models utilized two
together and may be located in front of or behind the
separate tie rods to connect the steering arms together.
centerline of the wheel. The tie rod is usually of a solid
These tie rods were Joined in the middle by an
rod construction but tubular designs also are used.
intermediate knuckle arm, which pivoted on the frame.
Tie rod ends, described in paragraph 33-2d, are used to
d. Tie Rod Ends. Tie rod ends are used to form a
form the flexible link to the steering arms.
flexible link between the tie rod and steering arm. The tie
rod end usually is fastened to the knuckle arm with a
b. Parallelogram  Steering  Linkage  (Fig. 33-5).
tapered stud. A socket is provided within the tie rod end
This configuration is a very popular steering system for
to hold the end of the stud, which is in the form of a ball
independent front suspension and is used on many of
or yoke. The socket also allows movement between the
today's vehicles,
knuckle arm and the tie rod. A lubrication fitting usually
Change 1 33-2


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