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TM 9-8000
Single leaf springs generally are used on lighter
springs, are frictionless and
suspension systems that do not have to carry great
require the use of a shock absorber to dampen
loads. A multileaf spring (B, fig. 30-1) is made up of a
vibrations. Their cylindrical shape requires less space to
single leaf with additional leaves attached to it using
operate in.  Pads sometimes are used between the
spring clamps. The additional leaves make the spring
spring and chassis to eliminate transferring vibrations to
stiffer, allowing it to carry greater loads. As a multileaf
the body. Coil springs are not able to absorb any torque
spring operates, there is a friction generated between the
when employed in the suspension system. Therefore,
leaves, causing it to have a dampening quality. These
control arms and stabilizers are required to maintain the
types of springs may not require the use of a shock
proper geometry between the body and suspension
absorber in some applications. The multileaf spring uses
a frictional material laminated between the leaves to
c. Torsion Bars. The torsion bar consists of a steel
reduce wear and eliminate any squeaks that might
develop. To keep the leaves equally spaced lengthwise,
rod usually made of spring steel. It is treated with heat or
the multileaf spring uses a center bolt. The center bolt
pressure to make it elastic, so it will retain its original
rigidly holds the leaves together in the middle of the
shape after being twisted. Torsion bars, like coil springs,
spring, pre- venting the leaves from moving off center.
are frictionless and require the use of shock absorbers.
Leaf springs are attached to the vehicle using a bracket
The torsion bar is serrated on each end and is attached
usually mounted rigidly to the frame in the front, and a
to the torsion bar anchor at one end and to the
shackle in the rear, which allows the spring to expand
suspension system at the other (fig. 30-3). Torsion bars
and contract without binding as it moves through its arc.
are marked to indicate proper installation by an arrow
stamped into the metal.  It is essential that they be
b. Coil Springs. These springs usually are made of
installed properly because they are designed to take
round spring steel wound into a coil (fig. 30-2). Because
stress in one direction only. The elasticity of the rod is
of their simplicity, they are less costly to manufacture and
utilized and as long as the elastic limit is not exceeded,
also have the widest application.  Spring stiffness is
the torque resistance will return the suspension to its
changed on coil springs by toughening them.  Coil
normal position in the same manner as a spring
springs, like torsion bars and volute (or spiral-shaped)
Figure 30-2. Coil Springs.


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