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TM 9-8000
Figure 33-22. Kingpin inclination
steering knuckle pivots tends to keep the wheel spindles
between camber and kingpin inclination. They are
pointed outward in line with the axle, Just as caster tends
closely related and dependent on each other. Wheels
to keep the wheels of a vehicle pointed straight ahead.
with large camber require large kingpin Inclination and
The effect is the same and also will result in easier
those with small camber require small kingpin Inclination.
steering. Setting the steering knuckle pivot at an angle
Pivot Inclination allows the front wheel brakes to be
causes the pivot axis to meet the ground close to the
applied with little affect on steering.
center of the tire contact (fig. 33-23). The wheel,
therefore, has a small turning radius so that it will be
33-21. Toe-In. Toe-in (fig. 33-24) Is the amount in
easy to turn and will roll in a very small arc on the
inches that the wheels point in; that is, the distance
ground. Too much inclination makes it difficult to park a
between the front wheels is less at the front than it is at
vehicle because, if the intersection of the pivot axis to the
the rear. Toe-in and camber are definitely related and
ground falls at the center of the tire contact with the
depend on the crown of the road. For a flat road,
ground, the tire slides rather than rolls when the wheel is
experience Indicates that a desirable condition Is to have
turned on a stationary vehicle. Pivot inclination Is usually
zero camber and zero toe-In. However, such a condition
from 3 to 7 degrees. Careful distinction should be made
is difficult to maintain. Toe-in balances the effect of
Figure 33-23. Kingpin Inclination


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